Venus vs Earth: Comparison, Size, Mass, Gravity, Similarities and Differences

Venus vs Earth: Comparison, Size, Mass, Gravity, Similarities and Differences

Venus vs Earth

The vast expanse of our solar system is home to a diverse array of planets, each with its own distinct characteristics. Among these celestial bodies, Venus and Earth stand out as fascinating subjects of comparison. In this journey of discovery, we delve into the differences and similarities between these two planets, offering insights into their atmospheres, surfaces, climates, and potential for exploration.

Venus Compared to Earth

Venus and Earth, often referred to as sister planets due to their similar sizes and compositions, are two terrestrial planets within our solar system. Despite these similarities, there are also significant differences that set them apart.

Venus and Earth Similarities

  1. Terrestrial Nature:
    • Venus: Like Earth, Venus is a terrestrial planet with a solid surface composed of rocks and metals.
    • Earth: Our home planet is also terrestrial, featuring a diverse surface with oceans, continents, and a variety of geological features.
  2. Similar Composition:
    • Venus: Both Venus and Earth have similar compositions, primarily consisting of silicate rock and metal.
    • Earth: The Earth's composition includes a solid inner core, a molten outer core, a mantle, and a crust.
  3. Similarities in Size:
    • Venus: Venus is often called Earth's twin due to its similar size and mass.
    • Earth: Earth is slightly larger than Venus but shares comparable characteristics.

Venus and Earth Differences

  1. Atmospheric Composition:
    • Venus: Possesses a thick and dense atmosphere mainly composed of carbon dioxide, with clouds of sulfuric acid.
    • Earth: The Earth's atmosphere is predominantly nitrogen and oxygen, with trace amounts of other gases.
  2. Surface Conditions:
    • Venus: Features a hot and inhospitable surface with temperatures soaring high enough to melt lead. It has a runaway greenhouse effect due to its thick atmosphere.
    • Earth: Maintains a habitable surface with a moderate climate, suitable for a wide range of life forms.
  3. Rotation and Day Length:
    • Venus: Rotates extremely slowly and in the opposite direction to most planets, resulting in an exceptionally long day (about 116 Earth days).
    • Earth: Has a 24-hour rotation period, giving rise to a day-night cycle that supports diverse ecosystems.

Venus and Earth Size Comparison

  • Venus: Venus has a diameter of approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles), making it slightly smaller than Earth.
  • Earth: With a diameter of around 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles), Earth is slightly larger than Venus.

Venus and Earth Mass Comparison

  • Venus: Venus has a mass of about 0.815 times that of Earth.
  • Earth: Earth has a higher mass compared to Venus, approximately 1.7 times that of Venus.

Venus and Earth Gravity Comparison

  • Venus: The surface gravity on Venus is around 0.91 times that of Earth.
  • Earth: Earth has a slightly stronger gravitational force, with a surface gravity of 1.

Venus and Earth Side by Side

When placed side by side, Venus and Earth would appear remarkably similar in size, but their starkly different atmospheric conditions and surface environments would become evident. Earth's blue and life-sustaining atmosphere contrasts sharply with Venus' thick and toxic one. The comparison emphasizes the delicate balance of factors that contribute to the Earth's unique ability to support a diverse range of life.

Venus and Earth

Here's a concise overview of the main differences between Venus and Earth:


  • Harsh atmosphere dominated by thick clouds of sulfuric acid.
  • Predominantly composed of carbon dioxide, leading to a runaway greenhouse effect.
  • Surface marked by plains, highlands, and volcanic features.
  • Hottest surface temperatures in the solar system, reaching up to 900°F (475°C).
  • Inhospitable conditions with extreme atmospheric pressure and scorching temperatures.
  • Limited potential for exploration due to hostile environment.


  • Atmosphere composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases, conducive to life.
  • Supports a wide range of ecosystems and diverse forms of life.
  • Varied surface features including oceans, continents, mountains, and more.
  • Habitable climate with moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressure.
  • Home to human civilization and a rich biodiversity.
  • Explored extensively with a multitude of missions, providing insights into climate, weather, and life.

In essence, while both Venus and Earth share some similarities, such as surface features, their atmospheres and conditions differ dramatically. Venus's extreme greenhouse effect results in an inhospitable environment, while Earth's balanced atmosphere supports a vibrant biosphere and diverse climates.

Earth vs Venus

Here's a detailed specification table comparing Venus and Earth:

Specification Venus Earth
Distance from Sun Approximately 67 million miles (108 million km) Approximately 93 million miles (150 million km)
Diameter Approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles) Approximately 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles)
Composition Mostly carbon dioxide with thick sulfuric acid clouds Nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases
Atmosphere Dominated by carbon dioxide Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), trace gases
Surface Features Plains, highlands, and volcanic features Oceans, continents, mountains, and more
Surface Temperature Extremely hot, averaging around 900°F (475°C) Moderate temperatures, averaging around 59°F (15°C)
Climate Runaway greenhouse effect, inhospitable conditions Habitability with varied climate zones
Potential for Life Harsh conditions make it unsuitable for life as we know it Diverse ecosystems support a wide range of life
Exploration History Explored with various spacecraft, including orbiters and landers Extensively studied with satellites, space probes, and landers


Venus vs Earth Size Comparison

When comparing Venus and Earth in terms of size, Venus comes close to Earth's dimensions. Venus has a diameter of approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles), making it only slightly smaller than Earth. This similarity in size is apparent when observing the two planets in the night sky or considering their gravitational interactions.

Venus vs Earth Temperature Comparison

The temperature contrast between Venus and Earth is striking. Venus is often referred to as the hottest planet in our solar system due to its extreme greenhouse effect. Its thick atmosphere traps heat, resulting in surface temperatures that can soar up to 900°F (475°C), hotter than the surface of Mercury despite Venus being farther from the Sun. Earth's moderate temperatures, in comparison, are a product of its balanced atmosphere and its distance from the Sun, with average temperatures around 59°F (15°C).

Venus vs Earth Mass Comparison

In terms of mass, Venus is comparable to Earth, but it is slightly less massive. Earth's mass is approximately 6.42 x 10^24 kilograms, while Venus's mass is around 4.87 x 10^24 kilograms. This mass similarity contributes to the planets having similar gravitational forces, affecting aspects like the weight of objects on their surfaces and the behavior of their atmospheres.

Venus vs Earth Atmosphere Comparison

The atmospheres of Venus and Earth present a significant contrast that shapes their respective environments. Venus has an atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide (96.5%), with traces of nitrogen (3.5%) and other gases. This thick atmosphere contributes to its intense greenhouse effect and extremely high surface temperatures. The pressure at Venus's surface is about 92 times that of Earth, creating a challenging environment for exploration.

Earth's atmosphere, as mentioned earlier, consists primarily of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with trace gases such as carbon dioxide. This balanced composition supports diverse life forms and maintains a habitable climate. The atmosphere's moderate pressure and composition contribute to Earth's temperate temperatures and its ability to sustain a wide range of ecosystems.

Potential for Exploration:

Exploration of these two planets has provided valuable insights into planetary evolution and habitability. Venus has been the subject of numerous space missions, including orbiters and landers, that have revealed its extreme conditions and helped scientists better understand the challenges of exploring a planet with a runaway greenhouse effect.

Earth has not only been our home but also a launchpad for exploring other celestial bodies. Space exploration has allowed us to study our own planet from different vantage points, enhancing our understanding of climate change, weather patterns, and the delicate balance of the biosphere.


In comparing Venus and Earth, we uncover a tale of contrasts that highlights the delicate equilibrium required for a planet to support life as we know it. While Venus showcases the extreme consequences of a runaway greenhouse effect, Earth exemplifies the intricate interplay of factors that sustain diverse ecosystems. The study of these two planets underscores the preciousness of our own planet's habitability and serves as a reminder of the importance of preserving and understanding the delicate balance of our global environment.

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