SMSS J2157 Black Hole

SMSS J2157 Black Hole: Size, Mass, Diameter, Radius, Temperature, Distance From Earth

SMSS J2157-3602 Black Hole

In the vast expanse of our universe, SMSS J2157-3602, commonly known as J2157, has emerged as a celestial marvel, captivating astronomers with its extraordinary features. This black hole, discovered in 2018 and located approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, has earned its place as one of the fastest-growing and most powerful quasars ever observed. In this blog post, we delve into the fascinating details surrounding J2157-3602, exploring its massive size, rapid growth, and the groundbreaking research that has unraveled its mysteries.

A Stellar Discovery

SMSS J2157-3602 was first identified using the SkyMapper telescope at the Australian National University's Siding Spring Observatory, with the announcement made in May 2018. Situated at a redshift of 4.75, equivalent to a comoving distance of 25Ɨ10^9 light-years from Earth, this quasar immediately stood out due to its intrinsic bolometric luminosity of 6.95Ɨ10^14 Lā˜‰ (2.66Ɨ10^41 W).

SMSS J2157-3602 Black Hole

SMSS J2157-3602 Characteristics Details
Common Name J2157-3602
Discovery May 2018
Discovery Telescope SkyMapper telescope at ANU's Siding Spring Observatory
Redshift 4.75
Comoving Distance from Earth 25Ɨ10^9 ly
Light-Travel Distance from Earth 12.5Ɨ10^9 ly
Intrinsic Bolometric Luminosity 6.95Ɨ10^14 Lā˜‰ (2.66Ɨ10^41 W)
Absolute Magnitude -32.36
Black Hole Mass (July 2020) 34 billion solar masses
Total Mass Consumed Daily Equivalent to the mass of our Sun every two days
Distance from Earth Approximately 12.5 billion light-years
Growth Rate Consuming nearly 1 solar mass every day
Brightness (Comparison to Milky Way) 10 times brighter than a full moon
Dominant Emitted Energy Mostly UV light, also radiated X-rays
Observational Tools SkyMapper telescope, Gaia satellite, WISE, Very Large Telescope (VLT)
Scientific Significance Fastest-growing black hole, most luminous known quasar, contributes to understanding early galaxies and Universe expansion
Notable Features Shining thousands of times brighter than an entire galaxy
Collaborating Institutions Australian National University (ANU), European Southern Observatory (ESO), University of Arizona
Published Findings Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Eddington Ratio ~0.4 (indicating high luminosity despite the massive size)
Constellation Piscis Austrinus
Right Ascension 21h 57m 28.21s
Declination -36Ā° 02ā€² 15.1ā€³
Other Designations J2157-3602

This table provides a comprehensive overview of the key characteristics, discovery details, and scientific significance of SMSS J2157-3602, offering a quick reference for anyone seeking information about this remarkable celestial object.

How big is SMSS J2157 Black Hole

In the vast reaches of our universe, SMSS J2157-3602, colloquially known as J2157, stands as a celestial marvel discovered in 2018. Situated approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, this black hole has garnered attention for its extraordinary features and unique attributes. Let's explore just how big this cosmic entity truly is.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole Size

J2157's size, a key facet of its celestial identity, is not explicitly provided in the available information. However, its designation as a supermassive black hole places it in a category known for colossal dimensions. The term "supermassive" implies a size much larger than typical black holes, potentially spanning millions or billions of times the mass of our Sun.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole Mass

In a groundbreaking revelation in July 2020, researchers unveiled that J2157-3602 boasts a staggering mass of 34 billion solar masses. This places it among the most massive black holes ever detected and solidifies its status as the fastest-growing black hole known to humanity.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole Diameter

Specific details about J2157's diameter are not explicitly mentioned in the available information. The size of a black hole is often intricately connected to its mass, and the colossal mass of J2157 suggests a considerable diameter. The exact measurement would require further observation and analysis.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole Location

J2157-3602 is located approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, firmly placing it in the depths of space and time. Its discovery was facilitated by the SkyMapper telescope at the Australian National University's Siding Spring Observatory, marking a significant contribution to our understanding of distant celestial objects.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole Distance from Earth in Light Years

The light from J2157-3602 takes an astounding 12.5 billion years to reach us, emphasizing its immense distance from Earth. This temporal separation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to peer into the universe's past, offering insights into the early stages of galaxy and black hole formation when the cosmos was just 10% of its current age.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole vs Sun

In the cosmic drama of celestial objects, black holes and stars occupy vastly different roles, each with its unique characteristics and influence. Let's delve into a comparison between SMSS J2157-3602, a supermassive black hole located 12.5 billion light-years away, and our own life-sustaining star, the Sun.

Size and Mass Disparities

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Mass: Colossal 34 billion solar masses
  • Size: Supermassive, spanning potentially millions or billions of kilometers

Sun:

  • Mass: Approximately 333,000 times the mass of Earth
  • Size: Diameter of about 1.4 million kilometers

The sheer mass and size of SMSS J2157 dwarf the Sun, showcasing the vast spectrum of celestial objects in the universe.

Gravitational Forces

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Gravity: Exerts immense gravitational forces, capable of consuming the mass of our Sun every two days.

Sun:

  • Gravity: Maintains a delicate balance, holding planets in orbit and sustaining life on Earth.

The gravitational forces of the supermassive black hole are incomprehensibly more potent than those exerted by the Sun.

Spatial Separation

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Distance: Approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, observed in a distant cosmic epoch.

Sun:

  • Distance: Centered in our solar system, just 93 million miles away.

The vast spatial separation highlights the cosmic scale on which SMSS J2157 operates compared to the Sun's proximity.

Nature and Function

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole, contributing to our understanding of early galaxies.
  • Function: Consumes vast amounts of matter, emitting energy predominantly in the form of UV light and X-rays.

Sun:

  • Nature: G-type main-sequence star, essential for sustaining life on Earth.
  • Function: Generates light and heat through nuclear fusion.

The distinct natures and functions of these cosmic entities underscore their unique roles in the grand tapestry of the universe.

Observational Challenges

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Observation: Requires advanced telescopes and observational tools due to its extreme distance.

Sun:

  • Observation: Directly observable from Earth, facilitating detailed study.

The observational challenges posed by the immense distance of SMSS J2157 contrast with the accessibility of the Sun for direct observation.

In comparing SMSS J2157-3602 to the Sun, we encounter a stark dichotomy in size, mass, and cosmic influence. While the Sun serves as the lifeblood of our solar system, the supermassive black hole operates on a cosmic scale, offering insights into the early epochs of our universe. The contrast between these celestial entities underscores the vast diversity that enriches our understanding of the celestial symphony unfolding in the cosmos.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole vs Ton 618

In the cosmic theater, supermassive black holes take center stage, each with its own set of extraordinary features. Let's compare two cosmic behemoths: SMSS J2157-3602, a supermassive black hole located 12.5 billion light-years away, and Ton 618, one of the most massive known black holes.

Size and Mass Disparities

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Mass: Colossal 34 billion solar masses
  • Size: Supermassive, potentially spanning millions or billions of kilometers

Ton 618:

  • Mass: Estimated to be tens of billions of times the mass of the Sun
  • Size: Among the most massive known black holes, significantly larger than J2157

Ton 618's staggering mass and size dwarf even the already colossal SMSS J2157.

Gravitational Influence

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Gravity: Exerts immense gravitational forces, consuming the mass of our Sun every two days.

Ton 618:

  • Gravity: Exerts profound gravitational effects on its galactic surroundings, influencing the dynamics of stars and gas within its host galaxy.

Both black holes have immense gravitational influence, but Ton 618's impact extends across a larger cosmic scale due to its supermassive nature.

Spatial Context:

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Distance: Approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, observed in a distant cosmic epoch.

Ton 618:

  • Distance: Located in the Ursa Major constellation, far beyond our Milky Way.

Ton 618's location in a distant galaxy cluster emphasizes the cosmic vastness, while SMSS J2157 is observed from a considerable distance.

Nature and Function

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole, contributing to our understanding of early galaxies.
  • Function: Consumes vast amounts of matter, emitting energy predominantly in the form of UV light and X-rays.

Ton 618:

  • Nature: One of the most massive known black holes, residing in the center of a quasar.
  • Function: Emits intense radiation, making it one of the most luminous objects in the universe.

The unique natures and functions of these cosmic entities contribute to their distinct roles in the cosmic hierarchy.

Observational Challenges

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Observation: Requires advanced telescopes and observational tools due to its extreme distance.

Ton 618:

  • Observation: Observable due to its intense luminosity, offering detailed study opportunities.

Ton 618's brightness facilitates direct observation, while SMSS J2157's immense distance poses observational challenges.

In comparing SMSS J2157-3602 to Ton 618, we encounter two colossal black holes with unique attributes and cosmic influences. Ton 618's supermassive nature and intense luminosity make it a remarkable object in the cosmos, while SMSS J2157, observed from an immense distance, provides insights into the early epochs of our universe. Each contributes to the rich tapestry of celestial wonders, showcasing the diversity and complexity inherent in the cosmos.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole vs Phoenix A Black Hole

In the cosmic realm of black holes, SMSS J2157-3602 and Phoenix A represent distinctive celestial entities with unique characteristics and cosmic roles. Let's compare these two cosmic giants and explore the contrasting features that define them.

Size and Mass Dynamics

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Mass: Colossal 34 billion solar masses
  • Size: Supermassive, potentially spanning millions or billions of kilometers

Phoenix A Black Hole:

  • Mass: Estimated to be in the range of tens of millions to billions of solar masses
  • Size: Supermassive, residing at the heart of the Phoenix Cluster

Both black holes are of the supermassive variety, but SMSS J2157 exhibits a notably higher mass compared to Phoenix A.

Spatial Context

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Distance: Approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, observed in a distant cosmic epoch.

Phoenix A Black Hole:

  • Location: Situated at the center of the Phoenix Cluster, a massive galaxy cluster about 5.7 billion light-years from Earth.

Phoenix A, being part of a galaxy cluster, highlights its role within a larger cosmic structure compared to the more isolated SMSS J2157.

Gravitational Impact

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Gravity: Exerts immense gravitational forces, consuming the mass of our Sun every two days.

Phoenix A Black Hole:

  • Impact: Exerts profound gravitational forces on its galactic surroundings, influencing the behavior of matter within the cluster.

Phoenix A's gravitational influence extends across its entire galaxy cluster, affecting the dynamics of the cosmic environment on a grand scale.

Nature and Function

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole, contributing to our understanding of early galaxies.
  • Function: Consumes vast amounts of matter, emitting energy predominantly in the form of UV light and X-rays.

Phoenix A Black Hole:

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole at the center of the Phoenix Cluster.
  • Function: Contributes to the energy output and dynamics of the entire galaxy cluster.

The distinct roles of these black holes within their respective cosmic environments showcase their varied functions in the cosmic hierarchy.

Observational Accessibility

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Observation: Requires advanced telescopes and observational tools due to its extreme distance.

Phoenix A Black Hole:

  • Observation: Observable from Earth, allowing for detailed studies using telescopes.

Phoenix A's accessibility for observation provides astronomers with a close-up view, enabling in-depth studies of its properties.

In comparing SMSS J2157-3602 to Phoenix A, we encounter two supermassive black holes with diverse features and cosmic roles. While SMSS J2157 offers insights into the early epochs of the universe from a considerable distance, Phoenix A operates within a galaxy cluster, influencing the dynamics of its cosmic neighborhood. Each black hole contributes to the intricate tapestry of the cosmos, emphasizing the diversity and complexity inherent in the study of these cosmic entities.

SMSS J2157 Black Hole vs Sagittarius A Black Hole

Within the cosmic panorama, black holes of various sizes and characteristics play unique roles. Let's compare SMSS J2157-3602, a supermassive black hole located 12.5 billion light-years away, and Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole residing at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.

Size and Mass Disparities

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Mass: Colossal 34 billion solar masses
  • Size: Supermassive, potentially spanning millions or billions of kilometers

Sagittarius A Black Hole:*

  • Mass: Estimated to be around 4 million times the mass of the Sun
  • Size: Supermassive, located at the center of the Milky Way

SMSS J2157 stands out for its significantly higher mass compared to Sagittarius A*, showcasing the vast diversity in the sizes of supermassive black holes.

Gravitational Forces

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Gravity: Exerts immense gravitational forces, consuming the mass of our Sun every two days.

Sagittarius A Black Hole:*

  • Gravity: Exerts significant gravitational effects on stars orbiting around it, influencing the dynamics of the Milky Way's central regions.

While both black holes have substantial gravitational influence, Sagittarius A*'s impact is closer to home, shaping the dynamics of our Milky Way.

Spatial Context

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Distance: Approximately 12.5 billion light-years away, observed in a distant cosmic epoch.

Sagittarius A Black Hole:*

  • Location: At the center of the Milky Way, about 27,000 light-years from Earth.

The proximity of Sagittarius A* allows for more direct observation, offering detailed insights into its behavior.

Nature and Function

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole, contributing to our understanding of early galaxies.
  • Function: Consumes vast amounts of matter, emitting energy predominantly in the form of UV light and X-rays.

Sagittarius A Black Hole:*

  • Nature: Supermassive black hole at the heart of our galaxy.
  • Function: Influences the orbits of stars around it, contributing to the structure of the Milky Way.

Each black hole plays a distinct role, with SMSS J2157 contributing to our understanding of early cosmic epochs, while Sagittarius A* shapes the structure of our galactic home.

Observational Accessibility

SMSS J2157 Black Hole:

  • Observation: Requires advanced telescopes and observational tools due to its extreme distance.

Sagittarius A Black Hole:*

  • Observation: Directly observable from Earth, facilitating detailed studies.

The accessibility of Sagittarius A* for observations provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of a supermassive black hole up close.

In comparing SMSS J2157-3602 to Sagittarius A*, we witness two supermassive black holes with distinct characteristics and roles in the cosmic narrative. While SMSS J2157 offers a glimpse into the early epochs of the universe from a vast distance, Sagittarius A* influences the dynamics of our galactic neighborhood. Each contributes to the rich tapestry of cosmic phenomena, underscoring the diverse roles that black holes play in the grandeur of the cosmos.


Rapid Growth and Massive Consumption

In a groundbreaking revelation in July 2020, researchers reported that the black hole associated with J2157-3602 boasts a staggering mass of 34 billion solar masses. This finding, based on meticulous studies conducted by the Australian National University, positions J2157-3602 as the fastest-growing black hole ever detected. The black hole's insatiable appetite leads it to devour the equivalent of our Sun's mass every two days, shining thousands of times brighter than an entire galaxy.

Illuminating the Cosmos

Lead author Dr. Christian Wolf emphasizes the sheer brightness of J2157-3602, stating that if it were at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, it would appear ten times brighter than a full moon. The emitted energy, predominantly in the form of UV light and X-rays, showcases the immense power generated by this supermassive black hole. Such bright black holes serve as beacons, allowing scientists to study the early galaxies' formation and contribute to making the Universe more transparent.


Advanced Observations

The discovery of J2157-3602 was facilitated by combining data from the Gaia satellite, SkyMapper telescope, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). These collaborative efforts provide invaluable insights into the nature of fast-growing supermassive black holes, aiding scientists in understanding the formation of elements in the early Universe.


Unprecedented Mass and Growth Rate

Recent studies, conducted using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, revealed that J2157-3602 has a mass of 34 billion times that of our Sun. The black hole's astonishing growth rate, consuming nearly one solar mass every day, adds to its status as a record-breaking celestial entity. The observations also hint at the possibility that J2157-3602 may have absorbed other black holes, contributing to its colossal size.

A Stellar Endeavor

The research conducted on J2157-3602 showcases the collaborative efforts of scientists and advanced technologies. The European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope played a crucial role in determining the black hole's mass and the rate at which it consumes material. This groundbreaking endeavor opens new avenues for understanding the dynamics of supermassive black holes and their impact on the galaxies they inhabit.
Unveiling the Quasar Nature: J2157-3602 is not just a black hole; it is also a quasar, an extremely bright active galactic nucleus. The presence of a gaseous accretion disk surrounding the supermassive black hole contributes to its intense luminosity. As material falls into the black hole, electromagnetic radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, providing astronomers with valuable data to analyze and interpret.

Time Travel through Light

Observing J2157-3602 is akin to a journey through time, as its light reaches us from a distance of 12.5 billion light-years away. The observations offer a glimpse into the universe's past, allowing scientists to study a phase when the cosmos was just 10% of its current age. The information garnered from this distant celestial object contributes to our understanding of the early stages of galaxy and black hole formation.

The Quest for Understanding

The massive size and rapid growth of J2157-3602 pose intriguing questions about the nature of galaxies and the role of supermassive black holes in their evolution. Dr. Christopher Onken from ANU's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics emphasizes the importance of exploring whether the galaxy hosting J2157-3602 is one of the behemoths of the early Universe or if the black hole has consumed an extraordinary amount of its surroundings. The pursuit of answers drives scientists to delve deeper into the mysteries surrounding this colossal celestial entity.

Future Prospects

The discovery of J2157-3602 opens doors to exciting future prospects in astrophysics. As technology continues to advance, astronomers anticipate more detailed observations and measurements that could unravel additional secrets about supermassive black holes and their influence on the cosmic landscape. Large ground-based telescopes planned for the next decade may provide unprecedented insights into the expansion of the Universe, utilizing the brilliance of these bright black holes as cosmic beacons.

Conclusion

SMSS J2157-3602, the fastest-growing black hole known to humanity, continues to unravel the mysteries of our cosmos. Its immense mass, rapid growth, and luminosity make it a focal point for astronomers seeking to understand the early stages of our Universe. As technology advances, further observations and studies promise to unveil even more about this extraordinary celestial phenomenon, pushing the boundaries of our knowledge about black holes and the vastness of space.

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