Jupiter vs Earth: Comparison, Size, Mass, Gravity, Similarities and Differences

Jupiter vs Earth: Comparison, Size, Mass, Gravity, Similarities and Differences

Jupiter and Earth

When it comes to celestial bodies within our solar system, Jupiter and Earth stand out as captivating wonders, each offering unique insights into the dynamics of planetary systems. In this journey of discovery, we'll delve into the distinct characteristics of these two planets, from their sizes and atmospheres to their magnetic fields and potential for life.

Jupiter Compared to Earth

Jupiter and Earth, while both members of our solar system, stand in stark contrast due to their vastly different characteristics. Understanding their comparisons sheds light on the diverse nature of planets within our cosmic neighborhood.

Jupiter and Earth Similarities

  1. Orbital System:
    • Both Jupiter and Earth are part of our solar system, orbiting the Sun.
  2. Composition:
    • Both planets are primarily composed of hydrogen and helium. However, the proportion of these elements, as well as the presence of various compounds, differs significantly.
  3. Magnetic Fields:
    • Jupiter and Earth have magnetic fields, but Jupiter's is much stronger. Jupiter's magnetic field is one of the most powerful in our solar system.

Jupiter and Earth Differences

  1. Size:
    • Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, with a diameter of about 139,820 kilometers (86,881 miles), approximately 11 times larger than Earth.
  2. Mass:
    • Jupiter's mass is significantly greater than Earth's, approximately 318 times that of Earth.
  3. Gravity:
    • Due to its larger mass, Jupiter has a much stronger gravitational pull compared to Earth. Jupiter's gravity is about 24.79 m/s² at its equator, while Earth's gravity is approximately 9.81 m/s².
  4. Atmosphere:
    • Jupiter has a thick atmosphere primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of other compounds. Earth's atmosphere, in contrast, is predominantly nitrogen and oxygen.
  5. Formation:
    • Jupiter is a gas giant, believed to have formed by capturing large amounts of gas and dust early in the solar system's history. Earth, a terrestrial planet, formed through accretion of solid material in the inner solar system.

Jupiter and Earth Size Comparison

  • Jupiter:
    • Diameter: Approximately 139,820 kilometers
    • Volume: Vastly larger compared to Earth
    • Radius: Around 69,911 kilometers
  • Earth:
    • Diameter: Approximately 12,742 kilometers
    • Volume: Smaller compared to Jupiter
    • Radius: Around 6,371 kilometers

Jupiter and Earth Mass Comparison

  • Jupiter:
    • Mass: Approximately 318 times that of Earth
  • Earth:
    • Mass: Much smaller compared to Jupiter

Jupiter and Earth Gravity Comparison

  • Jupiter:
    • Gravity: Approximately 24.79 m/s² (equatorial surface gravity)
  • Earth:
    • Gravity: Approximately 9.81 m/s²

Jupiter and Earth Side by Side

If placed side by side, Jupiter would appear significantly larger and more massive than Earth. The stark difference in size and mass is evident, emphasizing Jupiter's classification as a gas giant compared to Earth's status as a terrestrial planet.

Jupiter's vibrant atmospheric bands, the iconic Great Red Spot, and its retinue of moons would be striking features, distinguishing it from Earth's diverse landscapes, oceans, and atmosphere.

Jupiter and Earth

Here's a concise overview of the main differences between Jupiter and Earth:


  • A gas giant planet with a diameter over 11 times that of Earth.
  • Dominated by hydrogen and helium in its composition.
  • Lacks a solid surface, featuring a tumultuous atmosphere of storms and clouds.
  • Possesses a powerful magnetic field generating striking auroras.
  • Not considered habitable for life due to extreme conditions and lack of solid ground.


  • A rocky planet with a solid surface and diverse landscapes.
  • Composed of elements like oxygen, silicon, and iron.
  • Supports life with its oxygen-rich atmosphere and balanced climate.
  • Home to a wide range of life forms and ecosystems.
  • Features a protective magnetic field and ozone layer.

In essence, Jupiter and Earth present a contrast between a gas giant planet with turbulent atmospheres and immense size, and a rocky planet teeming with life, a solid surface, and a delicate balance of factors that sustain it.

Jupiter vs Earth Size

Jupiter and Earth stand as planetary giants in our solar system, but their sizes differ dramatically. Jupiter's colossal size sets it apart as the largest planet, with a diameter of approximately 139,822 kilometers (86,881 miles). This immense girth makes Jupiter over 11 times wider than Earth. Its vastness allows it to dominate the night sky, often visible even to the naked eye.

In contrast, Earth presents a more modest size with a diameter of approximately 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles). Despite its smaller dimensions, Earth's solid surface and hospitable conditions have allowed it to become a thriving oasis for an array of life forms. While both planets are awe-inspiring in their own right, the sheer scale of Jupiter emphasizes the breathtaking diversity of celestial bodies in our cosmic neighborhood.

Jupiter vs Earth Temperature

Temperature disparities between Jupiter and Earth are pronounced, driven by their diverse compositions and atmospheric dynamics. Jupiter's lack of a solid surface and its predominantly gaseous composition lead to extreme temperature variations. Its upper atmosphere can experience chilling temperatures as low as -145 degrees Celsius (-234 degrees Fahrenheit), while its core may reach scorching temperatures of around 24,000 degrees Celsius (43,000 degrees Fahrenheit).

Earth's temperatures, in comparison, are more moderate due to its solid surface and diverse landscapes. The average global temperature hovers around 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit), providing the right conditions for liquid water and life to thrive. The temperature contrasts between these planets underscore the dynamic interplay between planetary structure, composition, and atmospheric factors.

Jupiter vs Earth Mass

In terms of mass, Jupiter and Earth also reveal significant differences. Jupiter, as a gas giant, possesses a significantly larger mass, approximately 1.898 x 10^27 kilograms. This massiveness contributes to its powerful gravitational pull and its role in shaping the dynamics of the solar system. Earth, as a rocky planet, has a mass of approximately 5.972 x 10^24 kilograms, reflecting its more modest size and solid composition.

Jupiter vs Earth Atmosphere

Jupiter's atmosphere is a maelstrom of swirling clouds, bands, and storms. Dominated by hydrogen and helium, its thick gaseous envelope gives rise to intense winds and intricate cloud formations. Earth's atmosphere, in contrast, is a blend of nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about 21%), along with trace gases. This life-sustaining mixture regulates temperature, supports respiration, and protects the planet from harmful solar radiation.

Earth vs Jupiter

Here's a detailed specification table comparing Jupiter and Earth:

Specification Jupiter Earth
Type Gas giant planet Rocky planet
Diameter Approximately 139,822 kilometers (86,881 miles) Approximately 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles)
Composition Mostly hydrogen and helium Various elements, including oxygen, silicon, and iron
Surface No solid surface; primarily composed of gas Solid surface with diverse landscapes
Atmosphere Rich in hydrogen and helium, with swirling cloud bands and storms Oxygen and nitrogen-rich atmosphere
Magnetic Field Intense and powerful magnetic field Moderate magnetic field
Life Support Not considered habitable for life as we know it Supports diverse life forms and ecosystems
Moons Numerous moons, including four largest known as Galilean moons One natural moon (Luna)
Rings Yes, faint and primarily composed of dust particles No natural rings


Size and Composition

Jupiter, often referred to as a gas giant, is a colossal planet that dwarfs all others in our solar system. With a diameter of approximately 139,822 kilometers (86,881 miles), it is over 11 times wider than Earth. Composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, Jupiter lacks a solid surface and features a tumultuous atmosphere dominated by powerful storms and swirling cloud bands.

Earth, on the other hand, is a rocky planet with a solid surface that spans about 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles) in diameter. Its composition includes elements like oxygen, silicon, and iron, creating the ideal conditions for diverse ecosystems to flourish.

Atmosphere and Magnetic Fields

Jupiter's atmosphere is a tapestry of vibrant bands and swirling storms, notably the Great Red Spot, a colossal storm larger than Earth itself. Rich in hydrogen and helium, its atmosphere exhibits intricate weather patterns driven by its rapid rotation. Moreover, Jupiter's intense magnetic field is one of the strongest in our solar system, generating awe-inspiring auroras near its poles.

Earth's atmosphere, a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases, plays a crucial role in supporting life as we know it. It provides us with the oxygen we breathe and regulates temperature, weather patterns, and even protects us from harmful solar radiation through the ozone layer.

Potential for Life

While Earth is renowned for its abundant life forms and complex ecosystems, Jupiter is not considered habitable for life as we understand it. Its extreme temperatures, lack of a solid surface, and intense radiation make it an inhospitable environment. However, its icy moon Europa has attracted attention due to the possibility of subsurface oceans, raising intriguing questions about the potential for life beyond Earth.

Final Thoughts

In comparing Jupiter and Earth, we gain a deeper appreciation for the diversity of celestial bodies within our solar system. Jupiter's colossal size, turbulent atmosphere, and powerful magnetic field reveal the complexity of gas giants, while Earth's balanced atmosphere, solid surface, and rich biosphere showcase the delicate interplay of factors that enable life to thrive. As we continue to explore these planets and unravel their mysteries, we embark on a journey that enhances our understanding of the universe and our place within it.

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